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What often tipped the scales in favour of the Turks and reinforced the technical stalemate, was better military leadership.  Whether in the shape of German commanders like Liman von Sanders, Carl Mühlmann, Major Willmer, Hans Kannengieser, or Turkish staff and commanders like Kazim Bey, Esat Pasha, Halil Bey and Mustafa Kemal, the Germans and Turks possessed better higher commanders than the Allies.  It was this final factor which overcame Allied Naval advantages, and tended to solidify the technical stalemate at Gallipoli. Yet it was this very technology that produced the stress of modern war …

"Gallipoli 1915", (Stroud 2002), Ti
m Travers, p. 176

line ran up and down in all directions, yelling like Jews in a synagogue; the officers also failed in this regards.  Divisional and regimental commanders were nowhere to be seen.

Carl Mühlmann quoted in "Gallipoli 1915", (Stroud 2002), Ti
m Travers, p. 176

It is incredible what levels of talent the senior Turkish officers can attain when it comes to disap-pearing.  The scenes that we witnessed were not encouraging.  Instead of advancing silently in previously agreed-upon directions, the skirmish


When troops fale, it is probably due to their leaders ... In the fight I often had the impression: the unit is a willing mass, but they are lacking leaders to give them purpose.  Out of this willingness and absolute acceptance of the authority of the superior follows the extraordinarily great influence a leader can have on his inferiors, if he is good, energetic and purposeful and Turkish – but he must be Turkish ...

Translated from  “Gallipoli - Significance and course of the campaign”, (Berlin 1927), Colonel Hans Kannengieser,  p.140





last updated : 17/11/06

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